The Science Behind
Renew Male

THE SCIENCE BEHIND RENEW MALE

CLINICAL STUDIES

Below are abstracts with links to entire studies. These studies cover the variety of ways that Renew Male can increase testosterone. You will need a PDF reader view clinical study links below. Download Abode Reader for free at Adobe.com/Reader.

N-Acetyl L-Cysteine

Efficacy of selenium and/or N-acetyl-cysteine for improving semen parameters in infertile men: a double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized study

 

ABSTRACT:

We explored the efficacy of selenium and/or or N-acetyl-cysteine for improving semen parameters in infertile men, and the associations among semen quality and the concentrations of selenium and N-acetyl-cysteine in seminal plasma. The study included 468 infertile men with idiopathic oligo-asthenoteratospermia who were randomized to receive 200 microg selenium orally daily (selenium group of 116), 600 mg N-acetyl-cysteine orally daily (N-acetyl-cysteine group of 118), 200 microg selenium plus 600 mg N-acetyl-cysteine orally daily (selenium plus N-acetyl-cysteine group of 116) or similar regimen of placebo (control group of 118) for 26 weeks, followed by a 30-week treatment-free period. These patients provided blood samples for the measurement of serum testosterone, estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, inhibin B, selenium and N-acetyl-cysteine. Semen samples were also obtained for routine semen analysis, and the measurement of seminal plasma selenium and N-acetyl-cysteine. In response to selenium and N-acetyl-cysteine treatment serum follicle-stimulating hormone decreased but serum testosterone and inhibin B increased. All semen parameters significantly improved with selenium and N-acetyl-cysteine treatment. Administering selenium plus N-acetyl-cysteine resulted in additive beneficial effects. A significant positive correlation existed between the seminal plasma concentrations of selenium and N-acetyl-cysteine, and semen parameters. A strong correlation was observed between the sum of the selenium and N-acetyl-cysteine concentrations, and mean sperm concentration (r = 0.67, p = 0.01), sperm motility (r = 0.64, p = 0.01) and percent normal morphology (r = 0.66, p = 0.01). These results indicate that supplemental selenium and N-acetyl-cysteine improve semen quality. We advocate their use for male infertility treatment.

 

REFERENCE:
J Urol. 2009 Feb;181(2):741-51.

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LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF LATE-ONSET MALE HYPOGONADISM ANDROPAUSE

 

OBJECTIVES:
To evaluate which factors influence the laboratorial diagnosis of late-onset male hypogonadism (LOH).

METHODS:
Total testosterone (TT), SHBG and albumin were measured in 216 men aged 52-84 years. The laboratorial definition of LOH was two values of calculated free testosterone (cFT) <6.5 ng/dl, according to Vermeulen’s formula.

 

RESULTS:
At the first blood test, cFT was <6.5 ng/dl in 27% of the men. Laboratorial LOH (confirmed by two tests) was present in 19%, but TT levels were low in only 4.1%. Age influenced TT (p=0.0051) as well as BMI; 23.5% of patients > 70 years and 38.9% of the obese men who had TT within the reference range were, in fact, hypogonadal.

 

CONCLUSION:
Especially in obese men and in those > 70 years old, SHBG dosage is important to calculate FT levels and diagnose hypogonadism.

 

REFERENCE:
Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2008 Dec;52(9):1430-8. Clapauch R, Carmo AM, Marinheiro L, Buksman S, Pessoa I.

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HORMONE TREATMENTS AND PREVENTIVE STRATEGIES IN THE AGING MALE: WHOM AND WHEN TO TREAT?

 

ABSTRACT:
Sex hormones have a broad range of actions in regulating very diverse systems throughout life. Testosterone and other related hormones change with age to varying degrees and may induce pathophysiological changes and the clinical condition known as andropause. Androgen replacement is the accepted but not the only possible treatment for andropause. The presence of clinical symptoms, including a loss of sexual function, intellectual capacity, lean body mass, or bone mineral density; alterations in body hair, skin, or sleep pattern; or increases in visceral fat, together with low levels of serum testosterone characterize andropause. An appreciation of the potentially undesirable impact of androgens on the biology of prostate cancer, as well as possibly the cardiovascular system, is necessary. However, proper evaluation of aging men with symptoms of andropause will result in a decision to initiate androgen therapy in some aging men.

 

REFERENCE:
Heaton JP. Rev Urol. 2003; 5(Suppl 1): S16–S21

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PROPORTION AND ACCEPTANCE OF ANDROPAUSE SYMPTOMS AMONG ELDERLY MEN: A STUDY IN JAKARTA

 

ABSTRACT:
AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of men with andropause based only on screening questioner (aging male symptoms, AMS) and their acceptance of the symptoms and factors, which influence the acceptance.

 

METHODS:
This cross-sectional study was performed from male visitors in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital between February and August 2001. 40 – 90 years old, without significantly severe disease or other conditions that can affect physical, psychological, or sexual activities. They were interviewed by four trained interviewers using a standardized questionnaire, an aging males’ symptoms (AMS) questionnaire consisting of 17 items including psychological, somatic and sexual questions. Degrees of andropause were calculated based on the total score of the questionnaire. The participants were also asked about the impact of the symptoms of andropause toward their quality of life (impact question), whether they could accept their condition or not. Data were analyzed using Stata version 8.2 for Windows XP computer packaged. Factors that influenced the acceptance of andropause were analyzed using logistic regression.

 

RESULTS:
The proportion of andropause was 70.94 %. Among them, 193 (54.52%) participants were categorized as having mild andropause, followed by 138 (38.95%) as intermediate, and only 23 (6.5%) with severe andropause. Among the 354 participants who experienced andropause, only 124 (35.03%) could not accept their condition, while the rest 230 participants (64.97%) could accept the symptoms of andropause. The degree of andropause and marriage status can affect the acceptance of andropause. The more severe the degree of andropause, the more they cannot accept the conditions (OR 2.19, 95%CI 1.28; 3.73). The married men are more tolerant to their conditions compared to the widower (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.08; 5.32). The white collar workers are more willing to accept the symptoms of andropause than the blue-collar workers (OR 2.07, 95%CI 1.28; 3.73).

 

CONCLUSION:

The proportion of the andropause based only on AMS is high, but only small portion that cannot accept the condition. Married man and white-collar workers are more willing to accept the symptoms of andropause.

 

REFERENCE:
Taher A. Acta Med Indones. 2005 Apr-Jun;37(2):82-6.

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ANDROGENS AND THE AGEING MALE

 

ABSTRACT:
Hypogonadal men share a variety of signs and symptoms such as decreased muscle mass, osteopoenia, increased fat mass, fatigue, decreased libido and cognitive dysfunctions. Controlled trials have demonstrated favourable effects of androgen substitution therapy on these signs and symptoms in men with severe primary or secondary hypogonadism. Thus, androgen substitution therapy is warranted in men with true hypogonadism at all ages. Symptoms experienced by otherwise healthy ageing males are non-specific and vague, although some may be similar to symptoms of hypogonadism. Therefore, the term ‘andropause’ has been suggested. However, testosterone levels show no or only modest variation with age in men; with large prospective studies suggesting a maximal decline of total testosterone of 1.6% per year. Thus, in contrast to the sudden arrest of gonadal activity in females around menopause, men do not have an andropause. As large placebo-controlled studies of androgen treatment in elderly males are lacking, proper risk assessment of adverse effects such as prostate cancer following testosterone treatment in elderly males is completely lacking. In the future, testosterone therapy may prove beneficial in some elderly males with low-normal testosterone levels. However, at this point in time, widespread use of testosterone in an elderly male population outside controlled clinical trials seems inappropriate.

 

REFERENCE:
Juul A, Skakkebaek NE. Hum Reprod Update. 2002 Sep-Oct;8(5):423-33.

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THE ANDROPAUSE: FACT OR FICTION?

 

ABSTRACT:
The so-called andropause is an ill-defined collection of symptoms in a group of men who may have low but may also have normal androgen levels. Unlike the proven benefits of hormone replacement therapy in women, the effects of testosterone supplementation in men are equivocal. It may increase sexual interest, but rarely to a level thought adequate by the patient. It has no proven beneficial effect on erectile dysfunction and other possible beneficial effects on haemopoesis, bone metabolism, lipids and fibrinolysis have yet to be demonstrated. With the availability of the testosterone patch, sustained increases in the serum testosterone levels will be readily achieved and could theoretically significantly affect the behaviour of subclinical prostate cancer. At the present time, testosterone replacement therapy in hypogonadal men is of proven clinical benefit; this is not the case, however, for eugonadal men with symptoms attributed to the andropause. The symptoms of the andropause fatigue can readily be explained by stress and there is no scientifically valid, placebo-controlled study that shows any benefit for testosterone supplements in this not uncommon group of patients.

 

REFERENCE:
Postgrad Med J. 1997 September; 73(863): 553–556. N. Burns-Cox and C. Gingell

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ENVIRONMENT, HUMAN REPRODUCTION, MENOPAUSE, AND ANDROPAUSE

 

ABSTRACT:
As the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator is an integrator of hormonal, metabolic, and neural signals, it is not surprising that the function of the hypothalamogonadal axis is subject to the influence of a large array of environmental factors. Before puberty, the central nervous system (CNS) restrains the GnRH pulse generator. Undernutrition, low socioeconomic status, stress, and emotional deprivation, all delay puberty. During reproductive life, among peripheral factors that effect the reproductive system, stress plays an important role. Stress, via the release of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), eventually triggered by interleukin 1, inhibits GnRH release, resulting in hypogonadism. Effects of CRF are probably mediated by the opioid system. Food restriction and underweight (anorexia nervosa), obesity, smoking, and alcohol all have negative effects on the GnRH pulse generator and gonadal function. Age and diet are important determinants of fertility in both men and women. The age-associated decrease in fertility in women has as a major determinant chromosomal abnormalities of the oocyte, with uterine factors playing a subsidiary role. Age at menopause, determined by ovarian oocyte depletion, is influenced by occupation, age at menarche, parity, age at last pregnancy, altitude, smoking, and use of oral contraceptives. Smoking, however, appears to be the major determinant. Premature menopause is most frequently attributable to mosaicism for Turner Syndrome, mumps ovaritis, and, above all, total hysterectomy, which has a prevalence of about 12-15% in women 50 years old. Premature ovarian failure with presence of immature follicles is most frequently caused by autoimmune diseases or is the consequence of irradiation or chemotherapy with alkylating cytostatics. Plasma estrogens have a physiological role in the prevention of osteoporosis. Obese women have osteoporosis less frequently than women who are not overweight. Early menopause, suppression of adrenal function (corticoids), and thyroid hormone treatment all increase the frequency of osteoporosis. Aging in men is accompanied by decreased Leydig cell and Sertoli cell function, which has a predominantly primary testicular origin, although changes also occur at the hypothalamopituitary level. Plasma testosterone levels, sperm production, and sperm quality decrease, but fertility, although declining, is preserved until senescence. Stress and disease states accelerate the decline on Leydig cell function. Many occupational noxious agents have a negative effect on fertility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

 

REFERENCE:
Environ Health Perspect. 1993 Jul;101 Suppl 2:91-100. Vermeulen A.

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CORDYCEPS

 

THE EFFECT OF CORDYCEPIN ON STEROIDOGENESIS AND APOPTOSIS IN MA-10 MOUSE LEYDIG TUMOR CELLS

 

ABSTRACT:
Cordycepin is a natural pure compound extracted from Cordyceps sinensis (CS). We have demonstrated that CS stimulates steroidogenesis in primary mouse Leydig cell and activates apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. It is highly possible that cordycepin is the main component in CS modulating Leydig cell functions. Thus, our aim was to investigate the steroidogenic and apoptotic effects with potential mechanism of cordycepin on MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. Results showed that cordycepin significantly stimulated progesterone production in dose- and time-dependent manners. Adenosine receptor (AR) subtype agonists were further used to treat MA-10 cells, showing that A(1), A( 2A ), A( 2B ), and A(3), AR agonists could stimulate progesterone production. However, StAR promoter activity and protein expression remained of no difference among all cordycepin treatments, suggesting that cordycepin might activate AR, but not stimulated StAR protein to regulate MA-10 cell steroidogenesis. Meanwhile, cordycepin could also induce apoptotic cell death in MA-10 cells. Moreover, four AR subtype agonists induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and four AR subtype antagonists could all rescue cell death under cordycepin treatment in MA-10 cells. In conclusion, cordycepin could activate adenosine subtype receptors and simultaneously induce steroidogenesis and apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells.

 

REFERENCE:
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011;2011:750468. Epub 2011 Jun 5. Pan BS, Lin CY, Huang BM.

 

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THE IN VIVO AND IN VITRO STIMULATORY EFFECTS OF CORDYCEPIN ON MOUSE LEYDIG CELL STEROIDOGENESIS

 

ABSTRACT:
Cordycepin, a pure compound of Cordyceps sinensis (CS), is known as an adenosine analog. We have found that CS stimulated Leydig cell steroidogenesis. Here we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of cordycepin in primary mouse Leydig cell steroidogenesis. The results indicate that cordycepin increased the plasma testosterone concentration. Cordycepin also stimulated in vitro mouse Leydig cell testosterone production in dose- and time-dependent manners. We further observed that cordycepin regulated the mRNA expression of the A1, A2a, A2b, and A3 adenosine receptors in the mouse Leydig cells, and that antagonists of A1, A2a, and A3 suppressed testosterone production 20-50% testosterone production. Furthermore, Rp-cAMPS (cAMP antagonist) and Protein Kinase A (PKA) inhibitors (H89 and PKI) significantly decreased cordycepin-induced testosterone production, indicating that the PKA-cAMP signal pathway was activated by cordycepin through adenosine receptors. Moreover, cordycepin induced StAR protein expression, and H89 suppressed cordycepin-induced steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein expression. Conclusively, cordycepin associated with adenosine receptors to activate cAMP-PKA-StAR pathway and steroidogenesis in the mouse Leydig cells.

 

REFERENCE:
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2011;75(4):723-31. Epub 2011 Apr 22. Leu SF, Poon SL, Pao HY, Huang BM.

 

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REGULATORY MECHANISMS OF CORDYCEPS SINENSIS ON STEROIDOGENESIS IN MA-10 MOUSE LEYDIG TUMOR CELLS

 

ABSTRACT
Cordyceps sinensis (CS) is an herbal medicine that increases steroidogenesis in Leydig cells and improves male reproductive dysfunction. We have found that CS stimulates Leydig cell steroidogenesis through the protein kinase A and protein kinase C signaling pathways. In the present study, we sought to determine the mechanisms of CS-stimulated steroidogenesis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells. Using pharmacological approaches, we found that de novo protein synthesis, protein transcription, a calcium signal, and a mitochondria electrochemical gradient were required for CS-stimulated steroidogenesis in MA-10 cells. mRNA expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein was activated by CS. However, CS had an adversary effect on P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme activity, but not in 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme, in regulating MA-10 cell steroidogenesis. In conclusion, de novo protein synthesis, increased steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mRNA expression, and the mitochondria electrochemical gradient were involved in CS-stimulated steroidogenesis in MA-10 cells.

 

REFERENCE:
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74(9):1855-9. Epub 2010 Sep 7. Chen YC, Huang BM.

 

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EFFECT OF CS-4 (CORDYCEPS SINENSIS) ON EXERCISE PERFORMANCE IN HEALTHY OLDER SUBJECTS: A DOUBLE-BLIND, PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL

 

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE:
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of Cs-4 (Cordyceps sinensis) on exercise performance in healthy elderly subjects.

 

DESIGN:
Twenty (20) healthy elderly (age 50-75 years) subjects were enrolled in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective trial. The subjects were taking either Cs-4 333 mg or placebo capsules 3 times a day for 12 weeks.

 

MEASUREMENT:
Subjects received baseline screening including physical examination and laboratory tests. Maximal incremental exercise testing was performed on a stationary cycle ergometer using breath-by-breath analysis at baseline and at the completion of the study.

 

RESULTS:
After receiving Cs-4 for 12 weeks, the metabolic threshold (above which lactate accumulates) increased by 10.5% from 0.83 +/- 0.06 to 0.93 +/- 0.08 L/min (p < 0.02) and the ventilatory threshold (above which unbuffered H(+) stimulates ventilation) increased by 8.5% from 1.25 +/- 0.11 to 1.36 +/- 0.15 L/min. Significant changes in metabolic or ventilatory threshold were not seen for the subjects in the placebo group after 12 weeks, and there were no changes in Vo(2) max in either group.

 

CONCLUSION:
This pilot study suggests that supplementation with Cs-4 (Cordyceps sinensis) improves exercise performance and might contribute to wellness in healthy older subjects.

 

REFERENCE:
J Altern Complement Med. 2010 May;16(5):585-90. Chen S, Li Z, Krochmal R, Abrazado M, Kim W, Cooper CB.

 

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EFFECTS OF A SUPPLEMENT DESIGNED TO INCREASE ATP LEVELS ON MUSCLE STRENGTH, POWER OUTPUT, AND ENDURANCE

 

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:
The present study examined the acute effects of a nutritional supplement intended to improve adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations on vertical jump height, isometric strength of the leg extensors, leg extension endurance, and forearm flexion endurance.

 

METHODS:
Twenty-four healthy men (mean age +/- SD = 23 +/- 4 yrs, stature = 181 +/- 7 cm, and body mass = 82 +/- 12 kg) volunteered to complete a familiarization trial plus 2 randomly-ordered experimental trials separated by a 7-day washout period. Participants received either 6 (body mass < 91 kg) or 8 (body mass >/= 91 kg) tablets of the treatment (TR; 625 mg of adenylpyrophosphoric acid and calcium pyruvate, 350.8 mg of cordyceps sinensis extract and yohimbine hydrochloride) or placebo (PL; 980 mg of microcrystalline cellulose) 1 hour prior to the following tests: countermovement vertical jump (CVJ), forearm flexion repetitions to exhaustion, isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the leg extensors, and a 50-repetition maximal concentric isokinetic leg extension endurance test.

 

RESULTS:
There were no differences between the TR and PL trials for CVJ height (P > 0.05), isometric MVC peak torque (P > 0.05), maximal concentric isokinetic peak torque (P > 0.05), percent decline during the leg extension endurance tests (P > 0.05), or repetitions to exhaustion during the forearm flexion endurance tests (P > 0.05).

 

CONCLUSION:
These findings indicated no improvements in the measured variables as a result of ingesting this nutritional supplement. Future studies should examine whether chronic supplementation or a loading period is necessary to observe any ergogenic effects of this supplement.

 

REFERENCE:
J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2008 Jan 29;5:3. Herda TJ, Ryan ED, Stout JR, Cramer JT.

 

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ANTIFATIGUE AND ANTISTRESS EFFECT OF THE HOT-WATER FRACTION FROM MYCELIA OF CORDYCEPS SINENSIS

 

ABSTRACT
This study was conducted to investigate the chemical component of the hot water (HW) fraction of mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis and its antifatigue and antistress effect against a stimulus in vivo using rats and mice. The growth of mycelia reached a maximum level of 31.6 g/l after 120 h of incubation. The main chemical composition of the HW fraction of mycelia of C. sinensis was found to be carbohydrate (78.9%) with 5% moisture. The swimming endurance capacity of mice orally administered with the HW fraction (150 and 300 mg/kg/d, respectively) was significantly prolonged from 75 to 90 min with a lessening of fatigue. When the HW fraction (150 mg/kg/d) was given to rats for 8 d including a 48 h stress period, the weight changes of the adrenal gland, spleen, thymus, and thyroid, which is an index of stress, were suppressed. The HW fraction also significantly inhibited the increase in total cholesterol and the decrease in alkaline phosphatase levels as biochemical parameters of immobilization stress in rats.

 

REFERENCE:
Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 May;26(5):691-4. Koh JH, Kim KM, Kim JM, Song JC, Suh HJ.

 

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CORDYCEPS SINENSIS AND ITS FRACTIONS STIMULATE MA-10 MOUSE LEYDIG TUMOR CELL STEROIDOGENESIS

 

ABSTRACT
The effects of Cordyceps sinensis (CS) and its extracted fractions on steroidogenesis in MA-10 cells were determined. Different concentrations of CS and 3 fractions of CS (F1, a water-soluble polysaccharide; F2, a water-soluble protein; and F3, a poorly water-soluble polysaccharide and protein) were added to MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells with or without human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and the production of steroid and the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) were examined. The results showed that CS alone (2-10 mg/mL) stimulated MA-10 cell progesterone production in a dose-dependent relationship. Fractions F1 and F3 (2-10 mg/mL) also had significant (P < .05) stimulatory effects on MA-10 cell steroidogenesis with a dose-dependent relationship. However, fraction F2 did not have an effect on MA-10 cells. CS and F3, but not F1, significantly induced more steroid production in hCG-stimulated MA-10 cells (P < .05). As a temporal relationship, F1 and F3 (2 mg/mL) maximally stimulated progesterone production between 1 and 3 hours after stimulation in MA-10 cells. In addition, CS and F3 significantly enhanced MA-10 cell StAR protein expression, which indicates that CS and F3 may use a cyclic adenosine monophosphate signal transduction pathway to activate MA-10 Leydig cell steroidogenesis in a manner to that of luteinizing hormone.

 

REFERENCE:
J Androl. 2001 Sep-Oct;22(5):831-7. Huang BM, Ju SY, Wu CS, Chuang WJ, Sheu CC, Leu SF.

 

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SELECTED HERBALS AND HUMAN EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

 

ABSTRACT
Herbs have been used throughout history to enhance physical performance, but scientific scrutiny with controlled clinical trials has only recently been used to study such effects. The following herbs are currently used to enhance physical performance regardless of scientific evidence of effect: Chinese, Korean, and American ginsengs; Siberian ginseng, mahuang or Chinese ephedra; ashwagandha; rhodiola; yohimbe; CORDYCEPS: fungus, shilajit or mummio; smilax; wild oats; Muira puama; suma (ecdysterone); Tribulus terrestris; saw palmetto berries; beta-sitosterol and other related sterols; and wild yams (diosgenin). Controlled studies of Asian ginsengs found improvements in exercise performance when most of the following conditions were true: use of standardized root extracts, study duration (>8 wk, daily dose >1 g dried root or equivalent, large number of subjects, and older subjects. Improvements in muscular strength, maximal oxygen uptake, work capacity, fuel homeostasis, serum lactate, heart rate, visual and auditory reaction times, alertness, and psychomotor skills have also been repeatedly documented. Siberian ginseng has shown mixed results. Mahuang, ephedrine, and related alkaloids have not benefited physical performance except when combined with caffeine. Other herbs remain virtually untested. Future research on ergogenic effects of herbs should consider identity and amount of substance or presumed active ingredients administered, dose response, duration of test period, proper experimental controls, measurement of psychological and physiologic parameters (including antioxidant actions), and measurements of performance pertinent to intended uses.

 

REFERENCE:
Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Aug;72(2 Suppl):624S-36S. Bucci LR.

 

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EURYCOMA

 

EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA JACK IN MANAGING IDIOPATHIC MALE INFERTILITY

 

ABSTRACT
This study investigated the effect of treatment with the proprietary standardized, water-soluble extract of the root of the Malaysian plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack, which is thought to enhance male fertility with regard to higher semen volumes, sperm concentrations, the percentage of normal sperm morphology and sperm motility in male partners of sub-fertile couples with idiopathic infertility. A total of 350 patients were given 200 mg of the extract daily and follow-up semen analyses were performed every 3 months for 9 months. Of these 350 patients, 75 patients completed one full cycle of 3 months. Follow-up semen analyses in these patients showed significant improvement in all semen parameters. The proprietary extract of Eurycoma longifolia Jack significantly improved the sperm quality in these patients, allowing for 11 (14.7%) spontaneous pregnancies.

 

REFERENCE:
Asian J Androl. 2010 May;12(3):376-80. Epub 2010 Mar 29. Tambi MI, Imran MK.

 

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THE EFFECT OF EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA JACK ON SPERMATOGENESIS IN ESTROGEN-TREATED RATS

 

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION:
There is little data concerning the ability of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL) to reverse the inhibitory effects of estrogen on testosterone production and spermatogenesis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of EL on testicular histology and sperm count in estrogen-treated male rats.

 

METHODS:
Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g were divided into four groups of six rats each. Group A (control) was given solvent in the same manner as the treated groups were given EL. Group B was treated with EL (8 mg/kg body weight) orally. Group C was treated with estradiol (E(2)) (intramuscular dose of 500 microg/kg body weight), and group D received a combined treatment of oral EL and intramuscular E(2). After fourteen consecutive days of treatment, rats from all groups were sacrificed and subjected to spermatogenic and epididymal sperm cell counts.

 

RESULTS:
The spermatogenic cell count in the E(2)-treated group was significantly decreased as compared to the control (p < 0.05) and EL+E(2)-treated groups (p < 0.05). A similar finding was found for the epididymal sperm count; the E(2)-treated group had a significant decrease in the count compared to the control (p < 0.05) and EL+E(2)-treated groups (p < 0.05). Rats that were treated with EL alone exhibited significantly higher sperm counts and sperm motility when compared to the control group (p < 0.05).

 

CONCLUSIONS:
EL extract acts as a potential agent for reversing the effects of estrogen by increasing spermatogenesis and sperm counts in rats after fourteen consecutive days of treatment.

 

REFERENCE:
Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2010;65(1):93-8. Wahab NA, Mokhtar NM, Halim WN, Das S.

 

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EFFECTS OF EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA JACK (TONGKAT ALI) ON THE INITIATION OF SEXUAL PERFORMANCE OF INEXPERIENCED CASTRATED MALE RATS

 

ABSTRACT:
We studied the effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack, commonly known as Tongkat Ali in Malaysia, on the initiation of sexual performance and the weights of sexual accessories in inexperienced castrated male rats. The doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight, which were extracted from E. longifolia Jack, were orally administered to the rats twice daily for 10 days prior to the tests and continued throughout the test period. Testosterone was used as a positive control after injecting 15 mg/kg daily subcutaneously for 32 days. Results showed that E. longifolia Jack produced a dose-dependent increase in sexual performance of the treated animals, but the E. longifolia Jack groups showed lower sexual performance in mounting, intromission and ejaculation than the testosterone group. Further results also showed that E. longifolia Jack promoted the growth of both ventral prostate and seminal vesicles as compared with the control, but the growth of sexual accessories at 800 mg/kg of butanol, methanol, water and chloroform fractions of E. longifolia Jack was less than that of testosterone treated group. The present study therefore gives further evidence of the folkuse of E. longifolia as an aphrodisiac.

 

REFERENCE:
Exp Anim. 2000 Jan;49(1):35-8. Ang HH, Cheang HS, Yusof AP.

 

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EURYCOMA LONGIFOLIA JACK ENHANCES LIBIDO IN SEXUALLY EXPERIENCED MALE RATS

 

ABSTRACT
The effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack were studied on the libido of sexually experienced male rats after dosing them with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight twice daily of different fractions of E. longifolia Jack for 10 days. Results showed that E. longifolia Jack produced a dose-dependent increase in mounting frequency of the treated animals with 400 mg/kg of chloroform, methanol, water and butanol fractions resulting in mounting frequencies of 5.3 +/- 1.2, 4.9 +/- 0.7, 4.8 +/- 0.7 and 5.2 +/- 0.1, and 800 mg/kg further increased them to 5.4 +/- 0.8, 5.4 +/- 0.8, 5.2 +/- 0.6 and 5.3 +/- 0.2 respectively but there were no erections, intromissions, ejaculations or seminal emissions during the 20-min observation period which allowed for the measurement of sexual arousal reflected by mounting frequency uninfluenced by other behavioural components. This study provides evidence that E. longifolia Jack is a potent stimulator of sexual arousal in sexually vigorous male rats in the absence of feedback from genital sensation.

 

REFERENCE:
Exp Anim. 1997 Oct;46(4):287-90. Ang HH, Sim MK.

 

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L-NORVALINE

 

ARGINASE INHIBITOR IN THE PHARMACOLOGICAL CORRECTION OF ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION

 

ABSTRACT
This paper is about a way of correction of endothelial dysfunction with the inhibitor of arginase: L-norvaline. There is an imbalance between vasoconstriction and vasodilatation factors of endothelium on the basis of endothelial dysfunction. Among vasodilatation agents, nitrogen oxide plays the basic role. Amino acid L-arginine serves as a source of molecules of nitrogen oxide in an organism. Because of the high activity of arginase enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of L-arginine into ornithine and urea, the bioavailability of nitrogen oxide decreases. The inhibitors of arginase suppress the activity of the given enzyme, raising and production of nitrogen oxide, preventing the development of endothelial dysfunction.

 

REFERENCE:
Int J Hypertens. 2011;2011:515047. Epub 2011 Jun 15. Pokrovskiy MV, Korokin MV, Tsepeleva SA, Pokrovskaya TG, Gureev VV, Konovalova EA, Gudyrev OS, Kochkarov VI, Korokina LV, Dudina EN, Babko AV, Terehova EG.

 

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THROMBIN STIMULATES HUMAN ENDOTHELIAL ARGINASE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY VIA RHOA/ROCK PATHWAY: IMPLICATIONS FOR ATHEROSCLEROTIC ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION

 

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:
Arginase competes with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) for the substrate l-arginine and decreases NO production. This study investigated regulatory mechanisms of arginase activity in endothelial cells and its role in atherosclerosis.

 

METHODS AND RESULTS:
In human endothelial cells isolated from umbilical veins, thrombin concentration- and time-dependently stimulated arginase enzymatic activity, reaching a 1.9-fold increase (P

 

CONCLUSIONS:
Thrombin enhances arginase activity via RhoA/ROCK in human endothelial cells. Higher arginase enzymatic activity is involved in atherosclerotic endothelial dysfunction in apoE-/- mice. Targeting vascular arginase may represent a novel therapeutic possibility for atherosclerosis.

 

REFERENCE:
Circulation. 2004 Dec 14;110(24):3708-14. Epub 2004 Nov 29. Ming XF, Barandier C, Viswambharan H, Kwak BR, Mach F, Mazzolai L, Hayoz D, Ruffieux J, Rusconi S, Montani JP, Yang Z.

 

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RHODIOLA ROSEA

 

REVISED ABSOLUTE STEREOCHEMISTRY OF RHODIOLOSIDES A-D, RHODIOLOL A AND SACHALINOL A FROM RHODIOLA ROSEA.

 

ABSTRACT
The absolute stereochemistry of rhodiolosides A-D (1-4), four monoterpene glycosides from the roots of Rhodiola rosea, and their aglycones, rhodiolol A (5), (-)-rosiridol (6) and sachalinol A (7), were reinvestigated. It was found that the absolute configurations of C-4 in these compounds, previously assigned to be 4-R, should be revised to 4-S.

 

REFERENCE:
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2008 Jul;56(7):1047-8. Li W, Dou D, Koike K.

 

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THE ADAPTOGENS RHODIOLA AND SCHIZANDRA MODIFY THE RESPONSE TO IMMOBILIZATION STRESS IN RABBITS BY SUPPRESSING THE INCREASE OF PHOSPHORYLATED STRESS-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE, NITRIC OXIDE AND CORTISOL.

 

ABSTRACT
Adaptogens possess anti-fatigue and anti-stress activities that can increase mental and physical working performance against a background of fatigue or stress. The aim of the present study was to ascertain which mediators of stress response are significantly involved in the mechanisms of action of adaptogens, and to determine their relevance as biochemical markers for evaluating anti-stress effects in rabbits subjected to restraint stress. Blood levels of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK), the phosphorylated kinase p-SAPK/p-JNK, nitric oxide (NO), cortisol, testosterone, prostaglandin E(2), leukotriene B(4) and thromboxane B(2) were determined in groups of animals prior to daily oral administration of placebo, rhodioloside or extracts of Eleutherococcus senticosus, Schizandra chinensis, Rhodiola rosea, Bryonia alba and Panax ginseng over a 7 day period. Ten minutes after the final treatment, animals were immobilized for 2 hours and blood levels of the markers re-determined. In the placebo group, only p-SAPK/p-JNK, NO and cortisol were increased significantly (by 200-300% cf basal levels) following restraint stress, whilst in animals that had received multiple doses of adaptogens/stress-protectors, the levels of NO and cortisol remained practically unchanged after acute stress. Rhodioloside and extracts of S. chinensis and R. rosea were the most active inhibitors of stress-induced p-SAPK/p-JNK. E. senticosus, B. alba and P. ginseng exerted little effect on p-SAPK/p-JNK levels. It is suggested that the inhibitory effects of R. rosea and S. chinensis on p-SAPK/p-JNK activation may be associated with their antidepressant activity as well as their positive effects on mental performance under stress.

 

REFERENCE:
Drug Target Insights. 2007;2:39-54. Epub 2007 Feb 16. Panossian A, Hambardzumyan M, Hovhanissyan A, Wikman G.

 

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RHODIOLA ROSEA: A POSSIBLE PLANT ADAPTOGEN

 

ABSTRACT
Rhodiola rosea is a popular plant in traditional medical systems in Eastern Europe and Asian with a reputation for stimulating the nervous system, decreasing depression, enhancing work performance, eliminating fatigue, and preventing high altitude sickness. Rhodiola rosea has been categorized as an adaptogen by Russian researchers due to its observed ability to increase resistance to a variety of chemical, biological, and physical stressors. Its claimed benefits include antidepressant, anticancer, cardioprotective, and central nervous system enhancement. Research also indicates great utility in asthenic conditions (decline in work performance, sleep difficulties, poor appetite, irritability, hypertension, headaches, and fatigue) developing subsequent to intense physical or intellectual strain. The adaptogenic, cardiopulmonary protective, and central nervous system activities of Rhodiola rosea have been attributed primarily to its ability to influence levels and activity of monoamines and opioid peptides such as beta-endorphins.

 

REFERENCE:
Altern Med Rev. 2001 Jun;6(3):293-302. Kelly GS.

 

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TRIBULUS

 

FREE SERUM TESTOSTERONE LEVEL IN MALE RATS TREATED WITH TRIBULUS ALATUS EXTRACTS

 

OBJECTIVE:
The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Tribulus alatus extracts on free serum testosterone in male rats.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:
Free serum testosterone level was measured in male rats treated with alcoholic extracts of the aerial part without fruits, fruits of Tribulus alatus and their fractions.

 

RESULTS:
All tested extracts showed significant increase in the level of free serum testosterone when compared to that of corresponding control, p < 0.05. Statistical comparison of all groups revealed that the maximum level was found in groups treated with chloroformic and ethanolic fractions of fruits extract.

 

CONCLUSION:
Tribulus alatus extract appears to possess aphrodisiac activity due to its androgen increasing property

 

REFERENCE:
Int Braz J Urol. 2007 Jul-Aug;33(4):554-8; discussion 558-9. El-Tantawy WH, Temraz A, El-Gindi OD.

 

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EFFECT OF SA1, A HERBAL FORMULATION, ON SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AND PENILE ERECTION

 

ABSTRACT:
SA1 is a mixture of 9 Oriental herbs (Korean red ginseng, fermented soybean, Tribulus terrestris, Fructus Rubi, Fructus Lycii, Semen Cuscutae, Dioscorea Rhizome, Fructus Corni and Fructus Crataegi) that are widely used as energizers and vitalizers in the indigenous system of medicine and have been alleged to improve the sexual functions in men. This study evaluated SA1 using both in vitro and in vivo experiments on laboratory animals in order to determine its effect on the sexual behavior and penile erection. The male rats used to examine the copulatory behavior were administered either the vehicle or SA1 (30, 100, 300, 600 mg/kg) orally for 2 weeks. The intracavernous pressure and systemic blood pressure were recorded in anesthetized rats. The responses to acetylcholine and SA1 of rabbit corpus cavernosum strips were also examined. There was an overall increase in the copulatory behavior parameters in the SA1-treated rats, which was reflected by a decrease in the mount and intromission latencies and an increase in the ejaculation latency and mount frequency. SA1 significantly increased the ratio of the intracavernous pressure to mean arterial pressure. In vitro, SA1 significantly enhanced the relaxation responses to acetylcholine. These results suggest that SA1 improves the sexual activity and erectile function.

 

REFERENCE:
Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Jul;29(7):1383-6. Park SW, Lee CH, Shin DH, Bang NS, Lee SM.

 

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NUTRIENTS AND BOTANICALS FOR ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION: EXAMINING THE EVIDENCE

 

ABSTRACT:
Erectile dysfunction affects 50 percent of men ages 40-70 in the United States and is considered an important public health problem by the National Institutes of Health. Consumers are exposed to a plethora of natural products claiming to restore erection and sexual vitality. A review of the available empirical evidence reveals most naturally occurring compounds lack adequate clinical trials to support efficacy. However, arginine, yohimbine, Panax ginseng, Maca, and Ginkgo biloba all have some degree of evidence they may be helpful for erectile dysfunction. Improvements in penile endothelial L-arginine-nitric oxide activity appear to be a unifying explanation for the actions of these naturally occurring agents.

 

REFERENCE:
Altern Med Rev. 2004 Mar;9(1):4-16. McKay D.
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SELECTED HERBALS AND HUMAN EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

 

ABSTRACT:
Herbs have been used throughout history to enhance physical performance, but scientific scrutiny with controlled clinical trials has only recently been used to study such effects. The following herbs are currently used to enhance physical performance regardless of scientific evidence of effect: Chinese, Korean, and American ginsengs; Siberian ginseng, mahuang or Chinese ephedra; ashwagandha; rhodiola; yohimbe; CORDYCEPS: fungus, shilajit or mummio; smilax; wild oats; Muira puama; suma (ecdysterone); Tribulus terrestris; saw palmetto berries; beta-sitosterol and other related sterols; and wild yams (diosgenin). Controlled studies of Asian ginsengs found improvements in exercise performance when most of the following conditions were true: use of standardized root extracts, study duration (>8 wk, daily dose >1 g dried root or equivalent, large number of subjects, and older subjects. Improvements in muscular strength, maximal oxygen uptake, work capacity, fuel homeostasis, serum lactate, heart rate, visual and auditory reaction times, alertness, and psychomotor skills have also been repeatedly documented. Siberian ginseng has shown mixed results. Mahuang, ephedrine, and related alkaloids have not benefited physical performance except when combined with caffeine. Other herbs remain virtually untested. Future research on ergogenic effects of herbs should consider identity and amount of substance or presumed active ingredients administered, dose response, duration of test period, proper experimental controls, measurement of psychological and physiologic parameters (including antioxidant actions), and measurements of performance pertinent to intended uses.

 

REFERENCE:
Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Aug;72(2 Suppl):624S-36S. Bucci LR.

 

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